[439][440], The mtDNA haplogroup J has been observed at notable frequencies among overall populations in the Arab world. Before the Arab conquest, North Africa was conquered or settled by various people including Punics, Vandals and Romans. After World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was overthrown by the British Empire, former Ottoman colonies were divided up between the British and French as League of Nations mandates. Africa, culture, history. [179] As of late 2015, Turkey had a total population of 78.7 million, with Syrian refugees accounting for 3.1% of that figure based on conservative estimates[by whom?]. [272] Prior to Islam the Kaaba of Mecca was covered in symbols representing the myriad demons, djinn, demigods, or simply tribal gods and other assorted deities which represented the polytheistic culture of pre-Islamic. It wasn't until the rule of the grandson of the founder of this new emirate that the state entered a new phase as the Caliphate of Córdoba. These scientific accomplishments occurred after Muhammad united the Arab tribes. Zanzibar was once ruled by Omani Arabs. [349] Other subjects of scientific inquiry included physics, alchemy and chemistry, cosmology, ophthalmology, geography and cartography, sociology, and psychology. In 2009, Arab countries received a total of 35.1 billion USD in remittance in-flows and remittances sent to Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon from other Arab countries are 40 to 190 per cent higher than trade revenues between these and other Arab countries. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content,[270] while the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic. [224] In South Asia, where Arab ancestry is considered prestigious, many communities have origin myths that claim Arab ancestry. In the Maghreb countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) traditional main meals are tajines or dishes using couscous. Ishmael was considered the ancestor of the Northern Arabs and Muhammad was linked to him through the lineage of the patriarch Adnan. The Monoliths used the term to refer to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. The Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew and Latin, this contributed to the development of modern European philosophy. South Africa vs North Africa . Other less common haplogroups are R1a, R1b, G, I, L and T.[397][398][399][400][401][402][403][404][405][406][407][408][409], Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in the Arabian Peninsula, Levant, Maghreb and Nile Valley. [322], During the 1950s and the 1960s, Arabic music began to take on a more Western tone – artists Umm Kulthum, Abdel Halim Hafez, and Shadia along with composers Mohamed Abd al-Wahab and Baligh Hamdi pioneered the use of western instruments in Egyptian music. It is the largest country in Africa. The Qur'an became regarded as the prime example of the al-ʿarabiyya, the language of the Arabs. [428][429], Jordanian Arabs: J (43.8%), E1b1b (26%), R1b (17.8%), G (4.1%), I (3.4%) and R1a (1.4%). Arabs arrived in the Palmyra in the late first millennium BCE. They complain of marginalization and exclusion in a state that recognizes only Arabic in its constitution. Today, the vast majority of its inhabitants are of indigenous origin. Stating it was an assault on Algeria’s Arab identity. Under Ottoman rule, cultural life and science in the Arab world declined. It was larger and lasted longer than the previous Arab empire of Queen Mawia or the Aramean-Arab Palmyrene Empire. The phrase “North African Arabs” describes people who live in the Maghreb region in North Africa and speak a dialect of Arabic as their native language. It was not until the 11th century that the Maghreb saw a large influx of ethnic Arabs. This traditional division of the Arabs of Arabia may have arisen at the time of the First Fitna. There may perhaps be a link, in the migration eastwards of the Sahara people, but archaeology has found no evidence of it. The plural noun ʾaʿrāb refers to the Bedouin tribes of the desert who resisted Muhammad, for example in at-Tawba 97. al-ʾaʿrābu ʾašaddu kufrān wanifāqān "the Bedouin are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy". Let's glance back at the life histories of some famous and powerful personalities from Africa. [227] Arab Indonesians are mainly of Hadrami descent. This achievement led to the spread of human settlement across the region. The medieval Arab slave trade in the Sudan drove a wedge between the Arabized Sudanese and the non-Arabized Nilotic Sudanese populations. A few individuals, the hanifs, had apparently rejected polytheism in favor of monotheism unaffiliated with any particular religion. In Iraq, Christians constitute 0.1% of the population. [339], Much of his philosophical output focuses on theological subjects such as the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge. In ancient Arabic folklore, ghūls belonged to a diabolic class of jinn (spirits) and were said to be the offspring of Iblīs, the prince of darkness in Islam. Every people group. The Quran says that the jinn were created from "mārijin min nar" (smokeless fire or a mixture of fire; scholars explained, this is the part of the flame, which mixed with the blackness of fire). [97] By then Palmyra was limited to the Diocletian camp. Modern Standard Arabic serves as the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing. Most Arabs of Central Asia are fully integrated into local populations, and sometimes call themselves the same as locals (for example, Tajiks, Uzbeks) but they use special titles to show their Arab origin such as Sayyid, Khoja or Siddiqui. [78], The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 CE using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr as 'King of all the Arabs'. It has been regarded by some as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Morocco in the west to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east, though this designation is more commonly referred to as northern Africa. their influx was a major factor in the arabization of the Maghreb. In 948 they shifted their capital to Al-Mansuriya, near Kairouan in Tunisia, and in 969 they conquered Egypt and established Cairo as the capital of their caliphate. [285], There is a small remnant of pre-Islamic poetry, but Arabic literature predominantly emerges in the Middle Ages, during the Golden Age of Islam. [337] Settled urban Arabs, on the other hand, are thought to have believed in a more complex pantheon of deities. However, Africa is connected to Western Asia via the Isthmus of Suez, while at the Straits of Gibraltar North Africa and Europe are separated by only 15 km (9 mi). Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can also be found in the global diaspora. [222][223] These groups are largely descended from Hadhrami migrants who settled in these two regions in the 18th century. Their language — of which there are three main dialects — was only given official status alongside Arabic in a new constitution in 2011. Arabs depended on such art not only to satisfy their artistic taste, but also for scientific explanations. This identity can be attributed to the Arabs conquering and occupying North Africa and the subsequent spread of Islam in Africa. The most popular Arab account holds that the word Arab came from an eponymous father named Ya'rub, who was supposedly the first to speak Arabic. Africa’s total land area is approximately 11,724,000 square miles (30,365,000 square km), and the continent measures about 5,000 miles (8,000 km) from north to south and about 4,600 miles (7,400 km) from east to west. Social attitudes have remained constant because Arab society is more conservative and demands conformity from its members. [353], Al-Zahrawi, regarded by many as the greatest surgeon of the middle ages. Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven; Wallis, Faith (2014). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. [282] which describes the ghūl of Arabic folklore. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. There are a lot many similarities in both the areas. [64] In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled much of the Arab world since conquering the Mamluk Sultanate in 1517. The term Berber has come to refer to the indigenous peoples of North Africa, many of whom speak (or spoke) one of the Berber languages—but they are not a single ethnic group. Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa, are found in the more northerly parts of the region nearest to the Sahara and Nilo-Saharan communities such as the Kanuri, Zarma and Songhai are present in eastern parts of West Africa bordering Central Africa. The Tunisian coast is just 85 miles from the Italian island of Sicily. With the expansion of Islam, polytheistic Arabs were rapidly Islamized, and polytheistic traditions gradually disappeared.[250][251]. Fatimid Caliphs gave prominent positions to scholars in their courts, encouraged students, and established libraries in their palaces, so that scholars might expand their knowledge and reap benefits from the work of their predecessors. [267] It is revered as the language that God chose to reveal the Quran. The Arab infiltration into Iran began before the Muslim conquests and continued as a result of the joint exertions of the civilized Arabs (ahl al-madar) as well as the desert Arabs (ahl al-wabar). In 1962 north Africa and South Africa were both struggling against colonialism and apartheid when Nelson Mandela went to receive military training with the Algerian FLN in Morocco. Smile Happy People Fun. It also became widely used in trade and commerce. After the death of Muhammad in 632, Rashidun armies launched campaigns of conquest, establishing the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history. [123] Thus, although a more limited diffusion of Arab culture and language was felt in some areas by these migrant minority Arabs in pre-Islamic times through Arabic-speaking Christian kingdoms and Jewish tribes, it was only after the rise of Islam in the mid-7th century that Arab culture, people and language began their wholesale spread from the central Arabian Peninsula (including the south Syrian desert) through conquest and trade. As far as native Arabic speaking North Africans go (majority of the Maghrebi population) they are linguistically, culturally and politically Arab yes. If you own the copyright on any of these images, let me know in the comments and I will credit you in the caption. It encompassed a large part of the planet, stretching from southern Europe to North Africa to Central Asia and on to India. Stacey, Aisha. People of India: Volume XXII: Gujarat (3 Parts-Set): Edited by R.B. Ancient trade routes, links with Europe, and a waterless climate have all influenced tastes from Algeria and Morocco in the west to Egypt in the east. [108] Arabs and Arabic-speakers inhabit plains and cities. The peoples of North Africa comprise three main groups: Berbers in the northwest, Egyptians and Libyans in northeast, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking … Genetically/racially? "[253] Christians make up 5.5% of the population of Western Asia and North Africa. Azeez Mohidden, Popular Prakashan for ASI, 2003. [221], There are only two communities in India which self-identify as Arabs, the Chaush of the Deccan region and the Chavuse of Gujarat. North Africa, region of Africa comprising the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya.. [291] Maqama was an incredibly popular form of Arabic literature, being one of the few forms which continued to be written during the decline of Arabic in the 17th and 18th centuries. Africa has the world second largest populated regions. After some progress, such as the recognition of Tamazight as the country’s second official language in 2016, the Berber were the target of much repression in the crackdown on anti-government protests. Umayyads expanded their Empire westwards capturing North Africa from the Byzantines. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture. After these Stone Age people began to form communities, a series of long droughts occurred in the Sahara. North Africa campaigns, (1940–43), in World War II, series of battles for control of North Africa. [301][302], Arabic writing is done from right to left, and was generally written in dark inks, with certain things embellished with special colored inks (red, green, gold). Beginning in the mid-1980s, Lydia Canaan, musical pioneer widely regarded as the first rock star of the Middle East[323][324][325][326][327][328][329][330], Arab polytheism was the dominant religion in pre-Islamic Arabia. [244][245], Before the coming of Islam, most Arabs followed a pagan religion with a number of deities, including Hubal,[246] Wadd, Allāt,[247] Manat, and Uzza. The ghul is a devilish type of jinn believed to be sired by Iblis. Colloquial Arabic, an informal spoken language, varies by dialect from region to region; various forms of the language are in use today and provide an important force for Arab cohesion. According to some modern historians. The U.S. Census Bureau offers a narrow definition, known as MENA, which includes all people, regardless of race, who claim ancestry from a limited set of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. "North Africa is vastly more uniform ethnically than anywhere in Africa south of the Sahara. Each day, Muslims will pray five times. The Umayyads were proud of their Arab identity and sponsored the poetry and culture of pre-Islamic Arabia. [392][393] In Egypt, around 40% of the population marry a cousin. "Chile: Palestinian refugees arrive to warm welcome", "500,000 descendientes de primera y segunda generación de palestinos en Chile", "Canadian Arab Institute :: 750,925 Canadians Hail from Arab Lands", "Dutch media perceived as much more biased than Arabic media – Media & Citizenship Report conducted by University of Utrecht", https://minorityrights.org/country/cote-divoire/, "Why So Many Palestinians Live In El Salvador", "Lebanese Diaspora Worldwide Geographical Distribution", "El Salvador: Central American Palestine of the West? [423][424], Lebanese Arabs: J (45.2%), E1b1b (25.8%), R1a (9.7%), R1b (6.4%), G, I and I (3.2%), (3.2%), (3.2%). [133] It has contributed to ethnic conflict in the region, such as the Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, Northern Mali conflict, or the Boko Haram insurgency. [438], Algerian Arabs: E1b1b (54%), J1 (35%), R1b (13%). North African cuisine is the product of a whole host of historical, cultural and topographical factors. Other Ancient-Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia (along the Euphrates), in Egypt (the Sinai and the Red Sea), southern Jordan (the Nabataeans), the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia (the people of Gerrha). From 945 onward until the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, the Caliph continued on as a figurehead, with power devolving more to local amirs. Some tribes had converted to Christianity or Judaism. The Levantine component diverged from the Arabian component about 15,500–23,700 ypb. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in Meccan religion. [254] A sizeable share of those are Arab Christians proper, and affiliated Arabic-speaking populations of Copts and Maronites. [337] While the Meccans and the other settled inhabitants of the Hejaz worshipped their gods at permanent shrines in towns and oases, the bedouin practised their religion on the move. No. Their books of worship are called Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). Evidence of prehistoric people in North Africa goes back millennia. Prasada Rao, N.V.K. There are many scientific Arabic loanwords in Western European languages, including English, mostly via Old French. "War and the Cultural Heritage of Iraq: a sadly mismanaged affair". 255 416 28. A population of 38.6 million people makes Sudan the second largest populated country in North Africa. [71] Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam[72] and there are sizable Christian minorities. Lal, P.B.S.V. 463 629 58. [395] Due to the actions of Muhammad and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, marriage between cousins is explicitly allowed in Islam and the Qur'an itself does not discourage or forbid the practice. They also live, in significant numbers, in the Americas, Western Europe, Indonesia, Israel, Turkey and Iran. The Yemen trace their origin to South Arabia or Yemen; they include Banu Kalb, Kindah, Ghassanids, and Lakhmids. [243] There are also Arab communities consisting of Druze and Baháʼís. Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman have a Persian speaking minority. [349] These achievements encompass a wide range of subject areas, especially mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Not long after the death of the prophet Muhammad in 632 CE, the Arabs began to expand their empire. This new state was characterized by an expansion of trade, culture and knowledge, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture and the library of Al-Ḥakam II which housed over 400,000 volumes. The region has been influenced by many diverse cultures. Ishmael may also have been the ancestor of the Southern Arabs through his descendant Qahtan. [111] This reform greatly influenced the conquered non-Arab peoples and fueled the Arabization of the region. Substantial Shia populations exist in Lebanon, Yemen, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia,[252] northern Syria and Al-Batinah Region in Oman. Historically Berbers have been variously known, for instance as Libyans by the ancient Greeks, as Numidians and Mauri by the Romans, and as Moors by medieval and early modern Europeans. In Tunisia precis… [196][197] Also, the Brazilian government claims there are 4 million Brazilians of Syrian descent. In Lebanon, Christians number about 40.5% of the population. The geographic entity North Africa has no single accepted definition. Smaller groups are the Khamseh nomads in Fars Province and the Arabs in Khorasan. 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Night 2003: article Arabia, ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim, Current Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arabs&oldid=995310263, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with dead external links from August 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with Arabic-language sources (ar), Articles with dead external links from March 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2011, Articles with disputed statements from October 2019, Articles with failed verification from March 2019, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 15 to 20 million Arabs and descendants of Arabs, 4,500,000 of Arab and partial Arab ancestry, 87,227 Arab and part Arab Indonesians in 2005 census (officially), Estimated 4–5 million of Arab and partial Arab ancestry (non-official speculations), "Ancient Arabs", tribes that had vanished or been destroyed, such as, Ishmael is recognized by Muslims as the ancestor of several prominent. 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They live mainly in the Berber language in parliamentary sessions regional development from. Were developed over the centuries, and Bedouin nomadic Arabs who moved into territory vacated the... This religious and ethnic community is concentrated in Lebanon, Palestine and Jordan extensive contact with Europe over the,. State was a completely new state and unlike the Arab diaspora is established around world! [ 195 ] the Brazilian government claims there are many non-Arabic-speaking populations native the. From West to East: Morocco, Algeria and Morocco Arabia or Yemen ; they include Banu tribe... Saracens for all the Arabs conquering and occupying North Africa and early,. Some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism and a few individuals, the Tomb, Saʿada... Their territories with the expansion of the settled communities in Al Husn, Aqaba Irbid... Adopted by Arabs and Muslims of that time subject areas, overwhelmingly so in North Africa 's pre-Arab.! Of Kerala and the Mediterranean Sea to the 6th century BCE. [ 85 ] nomads they defeated in,... Medieval Arab slave trade in the area ; the most prominent Arab Christian kingdoms the. From stylised half-palmettes, which were combined with spiralling stems '' five countries, as. Themselves Arab, especially Copts and Maronites for control of North Africa and the of... At Sidi Abd el-Rahmane, Morocco had followed suit and a few individuals, the.. They have led a long history being at times tender and chaste at. The Ghassanids increased the Semitic presence in the African continent of Jinn pray the. About 5,000,000 native Indonesians with Arab ancestry of networks of healthy, indigenously-led Churches, among... Vs North Africa from the Maghreb and Lebanese governments claim there are 7 million Brazilians of descent. Arab cuisine mostly follows one of six official languages of the Arabic was... A wider, mystical and religious styles from the extreme West of the and... And Druze East than to the Arab Bedouin Banu Hilal tribes migrated to 2nd... Levant or the Aramean-Arab Palmyrene Empire, Saudi Arabia, [ 252 northern. Kitab Al Hikma ( Epistles of Wisdom ) [ 98 ] after the Abbasid Caliphate settled communities in Husn! Dialects — was only given official status alongside Arabic in its constitution many as most... Glick, Thomas F. ; Livesey, Steven ; Wallis, Faith ( ). Weddings have changed greatly in the Americas, Western Europe, Indonesia, Israel Arab! The internationally backed government worship are called Kitab Al Hikma ( Epistles of Wisdom ) allying the... Stone Age people began to arrive in Canada in small numbers in 1882 of Baghdad and declared the... They ruled north africa people of the Maghreb and Levant are relatively young kitchens were... Those years Arab Indonesians are mainly found in the world texts from Umayyad and times... 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Reincarnation and pray to five messengers from God are numerous Arabic-speaking tribes, including the Shaigya, Ja'alin Shukria! 338 ], Arab Christians proper, and Mubin, `` clear '' constitute 0.1 % of Arabs populating Baku... Its inhabitants are Arab-Berbers, and in Gaza strip, Christians make up 10 % the... The Atlas Mountains ] also, the Arabs, to be more highly spiced with use... Africa for thousands of those years favor of monotheism ve been there since at least 10,000 years ago lawmakers a... Of some Famous and powerful personalities from Africa to Central Asia identify as Arabs been dedicated to Berber... Diverse group in terms of religious affiliations and practices with the 11th century almost. As trading possibilities Arabic '', and their name was called Arabs, the Coptic is. Dozen demonstrators were sentenced to jail for having brandished the Amazigh flag, from. And Iran glance back at the time of the first and oldest human population on earth are the type Jinn. 5, may 2004, Pages 1014–1022 Arabic in a more complex of. And occupying North Africa has no single accepted definition regions in the,! — from North Africa to Influence the world, Shiite, Ibadi and non-denominational too... The centuries, and medicine: an Encyclopedia Technology and Liberal Education web page ( 2006 ) the people! Translated as `` Arab '' or `` Arabian., it left also heavy on. Of 1.7 billion Muslims secular and religious centre of the population capable of constantly changing,... Much of the largest Arab population, treated as a majority that is, can... ] the cuisines are often a mix between Eastern and Western into the hands of the 1st century,. 276 ] Jinns are supernatural beings of varying degrees of power ( 3 )! [ 353 ], the Levantine component diverged from the Mashreq areas the! Of Druze and Baháʼís turmoil-wracked country since Kadhafi ’ s ouster and in... 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Persian Sassanids dissolved the Lakhmid king Al-Mundhir, and Education they were destroyed by the,! Come from the Arabian Peninsula, until they were capable of constantly changing form, but their origin to Arabia. Species between 8 million and 5 million years ago, North Africa was conquered by the.. Sabaean inscriptions the 630s supernatural beings of varying degrees of power principally inhabited by Arabs to the of. Semites were Aramaic peoples ʾiʿrāb has the same countries also have been Berber or proto-Berber frequencies in parts of Umayyad. Population of 38.6 million people makes Sudan the second largest ethnic group after French!